Page 199 Exercise 6 self-marking

YEAR 10 homework example:
how to answer questions in full sentences

New Wider World Geography: exercise 6 on page 199
referring to text on international aid on pages 190 and 191

NOTE: The following answers should provide a model for the way you respond to Geography homework exercises.  All too often, students are providing three-word answers to questions that require detailed explanation, or answers that do not even have the subject in the sentence.  Answers starting with a pronoun (“It is because…” or “They are…” etc.) tell you immediately that you have not included the subject of the question in your answer. The following answers are not the only correct way to answer these questions, but they provide a clear example of how to answer questions.  

Remember that GCSE Geography homework is no longer Key Stage 3 homework, and certainly a long way from primary school homework.  There is a very definite need to understand the level you are meant to be working at in order to achieve GCSE success: regard every homework exercise as an opportunity to practice the art of writing a full response to an exam question.  That is the point of these exercises.  When you think about it, what else would the point be?

a. i). Name five types of aid.

Five types of international aid are: government aid, also called bilateral aid; multilateral aid from international organizations, e.g. the World Bank; voluntary aid, which comes from charities; short-term or emergency aid; and long-term sustainable aid, quite often developing local skills using available raw materials.

ii). What are the main advantages and disadvantages of each of these types of aid?

Of the different types of aid, bilateral aid has more disadvantages, including the recipient country being more tied to the donor country, debt and a high probability of encouraging corruption.  Multilateral aid leads to increasing dependence, but can help LEDC countries develop crops, raw materials and industry. Voluntary aid is less problematic, and likely to benefit people who need the help, but it is dependent on the charity’s ability to raise money and may be uncertain or not continuous.  Short term aid is mostly beneficial and provides immediate help for those who need it.  Long-term sustainable aid is also positive and significantly does not let LEDCs fall into debt.

iii). Which of these types of aid do you think is most helpful to the recipient country? Give two reasons for your answer.

Voluntary aid and long-term sustainable aid are the most beneficial to LEDCs because they have the most chance of helping people to find local answers to their development problems.

b. i). Give four reasons why some countries need aid.

Some less developed countries need aid because their goods do not sell at a price which allows them to buy the things they need from more developed countries (trade deficit). They also need to improve their basic services and infrastructure.  Some countries need short-term help due to frequent natural disasters and other countries may need long-term help improving their country’s economic development in order to raise the standard of living and quality of life for all..

ii). Name four countries that have recently needed aid urgently. For each give a reason why that aid was needed.

The Philippines needed urgent aid due to the devastation caused by typhoon Haiyan.  Tibet needed help because of the two large earthquakes in 2015.  Ethiopia required food aid due to famine.  Lebanon is a poor country with a small population that has been given emergency aid to cope with hundreds of thousands of refugees from the war in Syria.

iii). Suggest three forms of aid that might be given in the short term.

Short-term aid includes food aid in famine, technical support (e.g. providing experts and equipment to help with the rescue of trapped people after an earthquake), and medical aid such as provided by Medecins Sans Frontieres who set up field hospitals for emergencies such as the Ebola virus in Africa.

iv). Suggest three forms of aid that might be given in the long term.

Long-term aid could be provided in the form of training for medical and technical experts.  It can also involve a programme of building industry in a country to help it become more efficient and economically stable.  The development of sustainable agricultural programmes may also be long-term projects, in order to help a country to feed itself and be less dependent on imported foods.

v). Give three problems that might arise in a country as a result of receiving aid.

Debt can be a problem in countries that have received aid in the form of loans which they cannot repay.  Some countries come to rely on aid and become dependent on the donor countries rather than find their own independent solutions to economic problems. Corrupt and inefficient governments use the aid money for themselves and their immediate supporters, while the poorer citizens remain poor and the country is unable to replace its unsuccessful rulers: aid therefore rewards failure.

c. The graphs below show the major aid donors and major aid recipients in 2000

i). The UN recommends that rich countries give 0.7 percent of their GDP as aid to poorer countries. How many countries reached this target in 2000?

Only four countries reached their aid target in 2000.

ii). How much aid did the UK give?

In 2000, the UK gave only 0.26% of its GDP in aid (against a target of 0.7%).

iii). Name the four countries that gave most aid.

The countries that gave most aid in 2000 were mainly the relatively rich Nordic countries of Norway (0.86%), Sweden (0.79%) and Denmark (0.97%), but also Netherlands (0.81%) which is a relatively small European country and not as rich as the UK, Germany or France, for example.

iv). Name the four countries that received most aid.

The four countries that received most aid in 2000 were the heavily indebted countries of Mozambique, Nicaragua, Bosnia and Guinea-Bissau, ranging from 58% to 41% debt as a percentage of GDP.

d.  Some people criticise Britain for giving relatively little aid. Others say that if we stopped giving aid then everyone in the UK could be one hundred pounds a year better off.  Do you think we should give more or less aid?  Give reasons for your answer.

Britain should give its full share of aid money because it is a rich country and has obligations to LEDCs who rely on the more developed countries to help their poor to improve.  Britain could afford to give much more in aid if the government managed to get more tax from large multinational companies and individuals who hide their profits in offshore tax havens (e.g. in Barbados or the Channel Islands, Switzerland etc.)  More aid should be targeted in the form of project aid that directly benefits the poor in the receiving countries.  We should see aid as being an investment in countries which will then be able to afford to buy our products, so trade will be improved.