3.5 Global Interdependence exam questions

Global Interdependence s2008 

5(a) With the help of examples, describe how changes in the global market may affect trade in visible goods. [10]

(b) How may global inequalities in export earnings from tourism be explained? [15]

 

Global Interdependence s2008 

6(a) Fig. 2 shows how local people’s attitudes to tourism may change as a destination develops.

(i) Suggest reasons why local people welcome tourists initially in the stage called ‘Euphoria’ in Fig. 2. [5]

(ii) Suggest possible ways of reducing conflicts between local people and tourists in the stage called ‘Antagonism’ in Fig. 2. [5]

(b) To what extent has the development of one tourist area or resort you have studied brought positive changes to the lives of local people? [15]

Global Interdependence s2009 

5 With reference to one country:

(a) describe and explain some of the major issues the country faces in its involvement in world trade; [10]

(b) evaluate the country’s trading strategy. [15]

Global Interdependence s2009 

Table 1 shows international tourist arrivals in world regions in 1995 and 2000, and forecasts made for future years.

(a) (i) Describe the main features of the data in Table 1. [4]

(ii) With the help of examples, outline three different reasons why the forecasts of international tourist arrivals might turn out to be inaccurate. [6]

(b) How useful is the application of the life cycle model of tourism at the scale of world regions? [15]

Global Interdependence w2009 

5(a) Describe and explain the effects of trade agreements and innovation on global trade flows and trading patterns. [10]

(b) Assess how and why trade in visible exports may be preferable to tourism as the foundation for a country’s development. [15]

Global Interdependence w2009

6(a) Fig. 2 shows trends in employment in agriculture and tourism between 1951 and 2001 in Tyrol, a mountainous region in Austria, an MEDC in Europe. Tyrol is known for skiing in winter and outdoor activities in summer.

(i) Compare the trends in employment in agriculture and tourism in Fig. 2. [4]

(ii) Suggest two ways in which agriculture may still be important to a tourist region such as Tyrol. [3]

(iii) Explain briefly how employment in tourism may have a multiplier effect in a local economy. [3]

(b) ‘Tourism is a powerful weapon in the battle against poverty in LEDCs.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? [15]

Global Interdependence s2010

5(a) Describe and briefly explain the global inequalities in the major trade flows of oil shown in Fig. 2. [10]

(b) Outline the role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and, with the help of one or more examples, evaluate its work. [15]

Global Interdependence s2010

6(a) Using examples of tourist destinations:

(i) explain the concept of carrying capacity; [6]

(ii) identify some of the circumstances under which carrying capacity may be exceeded. [4]

(b) Assess the extent to which one or more ecotourism initiatives have achieved the aims of conserving the environment and empowering the local community. [15]

Global Interdependence w2010

5(a) Give the meaning of the term Fair Trade and, with the help of examples, explain what Fair Trade initiatives aim to achieve. [10]

(b) How far do you agree that ‘trade is better than aid’ for LEDCs? [15]

Global Interdependence w2010

6(a) Fig. 3 gives some information from a website about tourism in Antarctica.

(i) Suggest reasons for the growth in number of visitors to Antarctica. [5]

(ii) Explain why it is now considered necessary to limit the number of visitors to Antarctica. [5]

(b) Under what circumstances may the number of tourists arriving in a resort or tourist destination decrease? Support your response with examples. [15]

Global Interdependence s2011

5 Fig. 3 is a cartoon showing one view of global interdependence.

(a) Describe and explain the relationships between MEDCs and LEDCs in relation to giving and receiving different types of aid. [10]

(b) Consider the view that the costs of receiving aid are far greater than the benefits. [15]

6 (a) Describe the debt crisis of LEDCs and explain how it occurred. [10]

(b) To what extent is tourism a sound foundation for economic development? [15]

Global Interdependence s2011  

5(a) Use examples to explain some of the ways in which countries can get into debt. [10]

(b) To what extent can global inequalities in trade flows be explained in terms of historical factors? [15]

6 Table 1 shows international tourist receipts (money spent by tourists in the named regions) for four world regions between 1990 and 2005.

(a) (i) Using Table 1, describe the pattern of tourist receipts for the four world regions. [5]

(ii) Using Table 1 and your own knowledge, explain some of the factors that may influence the growth of tourism in a country. [5]

(b) According to the World Tourist Organisation, tourism is the world’s fastest growing industry. With reference to one tourist area or resort, outline the problems that growth in tourism has caused and evaluate the responses made to the issues it faces. [15]

Global Interdependence s2012  

5 (a) Explain the terms visible and invisible trade (imports and exports) with reference to one or more countries’ trading. [10]

(b) How far do you agree that trading in the global economy of the 21st century is about identifying opportunities and markets? [15]

6 Fig. 2 shows the life cycle model of tourism.

(a) Compare and contrast the characteristics of any two stages named in Fig. 2. [10]

(b) Assess the usefulness of the life cycle model for analysing the development of one or more resorts or tourist destinations. [15]

Global Interdependence s2012

5 (a) Fig. 3 shows the trade balance for a LEDC in 1999 and 2009.

(i) Describe the changes in the balance of trade using data from Fig. 3. [4]

(ii) Suggest reasons for these changes. [6]

(b) With the help of one or more examples, explain why countries find it difficult to get out of debt. [15]

6 (a) Describe and explain the recent growth in international tourism. [10]

(b) Assess the view that the impacts of tourism on the environment are greater than its impacts on society. [15]

Global Interdependence s2013 

5 (a) Fig. 3 shows preferential tariffs applied by MEDCs on key products from the poorest countries 1996–2008 (tariffs that are lower than those applied to other LEDCs).

(i) Describe the changes in import tariffs shown on Fig. 3. [3]

(ii) Explain how trade agreements such as preferential tariffs help the poorest countries of the world. [7]

(b) ‘Aid given by wealthy countries to less developed countries is more to benefit the giver (donor country) than to really help the poor.’ To what extent do you agree? [15]

6 (a) Describe and suggest reasons for recent developments in the types of international tourism. [10]

(b) With reference to one or more countries, assess the impact of tourism on their economy. [15]

Global Interdependence s2013 9696/31

5 (a) (i) Give the meaning of the terms visible import and invisible export. [4]

(ii) Using an example of a traded product, briefly explain trade relationships between MEDCs and LEDCs. [6]

(b) To what extent do political factors cause large increases and large decreases in trade? [15]

 6 Fig. 1 shows a model of integrated tourism development in an LEDC.

(a) (i) With the help of an example, give the meaning of the term ecotourism. [4]

(ii) Suggest three advantages of developing tourism in the way shown in Fig. 1. [6]

(b) Assess the impacts of tourism on the environment, society and economy of one tourist area or resort you have studied. [15]

 

Specific TOURISM questions 2008-2013:

How an understanding of the multiplier effect can be used in the full range of TOURISM questions from 2008 to 2013. The concept could have been used to good effect in every question that has been highlighted :

May/June 2008 9696/31

6 (b) To what extent has the development of one tourist area or resort you have studied brought positive changes to the lives of local people? [15]

 

May/June 2009 9696/31

6 Table 1 shows international tourist arrivals in world regions in 1995 and 2000, and forecasts made for future years.

(a) (i) Describe the main features of the data in Table 1. [4]

(ii) With the help of examples, outline three different reasons why the forecasts of international tourist arrivals might turn out to be inaccurate. [6]

(b) How useful is the application of the life cycle model of tourism at the scale of world regions? [15]

Oct/Nov 2009 9696/31

6 (a) Fig. 2 shows trends in employment in agriculture and tourism between 1951 and 2001 in Tyrol, a mountainous region in Austria, an MEDC in Europe. Tyrol is known for skiing in winter and outdoor activities in summer.

(i) Compare the trends in employment in agriculture and tourism in Fig. 2. [4]

(ii) Suggest two ways in which agriculture may still be important to a tourist region such as Tyrol. [3]

(iii) Explain briefly how employment in tourism may have a multiplier effect in a local economy. [3]

(b) ‘Tourism is a powerful weapon in the battle against poverty in LEDCs.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement? [15]

May/June 2010 9696/31

6 (a) Using examples of tourist destinations:

(i) explain the concept of carrying capacity; [6]

(ii) identify some of the circumstances under which carrying capacity may be exceeded. [4]

(b) Assess the extent to which one or more ecotourism initiatives have achieved the aims of conserving the environment and empowering the local community. [15]

October/November 2010 9696/31

6 (a) Fig. 3 gives some information from a website about tourism in Antarctica.

(i) Suggest reasons for the growth in number of visitors to Antarctica. [5]

(ii) Explain why it is now considered necessary to limit the number of visitors to Antarctica. [5]

(b) Under what circumstances may the number of tourists arriving in a resort or tourist destination decrease? Support your response with examples. [15]

May/June 2011 9696/31

6 (b) To what extent is tourism a sound foundation for economic development? [15]

October/November 2011 9696/31

6 Table 1 shows international tourist receipts (money spent by tourists in the named regions) for four world regions between 1990 and 2005.

(a) (i) Using Table 1, describe the pattern of tourist receipts for the four world regions. [5]

(ii) Using Table 1 and your own knowledge, explain some of the factors that may influence the growth of tourism in a country. [5]

(b) According to the World Tourist Organisation, tourism is the world’s fastest growing industry. With reference to one tourist area or resort, outline the problems that growth in tourism has caused and evaluate the responses made to the issues it faces. [15]

May/June 2012 9696/33

6 Fig. 2 shows the life cycle model of tourism.

(a) Compare and contrast the characteristics of any two stages named in Fig. 2. [10]

(b) Assess the usefulness of the life cycle model for analysing the development of one or more resorts or tourist destinations. [15]

October/November 2012 9696/31

6 (a) Describe and explain the recent growth in international tourism. [10]

(b) Assess the view that the impacts of tourism on the environment are greater than its impacts on society. [15]

May/June 2013 9696/31

6 (a) Describe and suggest reasons for recent developments in the types of international tourism. [10]

(b) With reference to one or more countries, assess the impact of tourism on their economy. [15]

Oct/Nov  2013 9696/31

6 Fig. 1 shows a model of integrated tourism development in an LEDC.

(a) (i) With the help of an example, give the meaning of the term ecotourism. [4]

(ii) Suggest three advantages of developing tourism in the way shown in Fig. 1. [6]

(b) Assess the impacts of tourism on the environment, society and economy of one tourist area or resort you have studied. [15]

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