The following links to Internet resources have been created for GCSE and A-level Geography students for the geography units on tourism. Naturally, Benidorm is a very important resource for this geography topic as we have the most developed tourist resort in Europe on our doorstep. There is also a complementary archive of photographs of Benidorm recording the stages of its development as a resort. This photo collection is a work in progress and new photographs are being added to it.
A general introduction to tourism for GCSE can be found in this presentation: Resort Development
1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BENIDORM:
A good general introduction to the significant stages of development of Benidorm is provided in these lecture notes from Ana Espinosa Seguí of the University of Alicante: “The evolution of tourism in Spain. The case study of Benidorm” This is a 46-page pdf file organised as presentation notes for a lecture, with valuable graphs, well organised tgables of figures for tourism and up-do-date analysis. (Latest Benidorm tourism figures are from 2012.) http://rua.ua.es/dspace/bitstream/10045/27662/6/benidorm_evolution.pdf
Some further Benidorm history and old photographs can be found here: http://www.realbenidorm.net/guide-benidormhistory2.html
Benidorm history pages on http://www.guia-de-benidorm.com/es/Informacion/historia.htm
Andrew Petcher, an English journalist has some very well researched information about the development of Benidorm on his blog pages, particularly early recollections from the 1960s. B is for Benidorm, Benidorm c1960, Benidorm, Plan General de Ordinacion, Benidorm, The War of the Bikini, Benidorm 1977 – First impressions and the Hotel Don Juan, Benidorm 1977- Beaches, the Old Town and Peacock Island
2. PEDRO ZARAGOZA:
Any study of the growth of Benidorm as a settlement and a tourist destination needs to take account of the forward-looking town planning of the 1950s and particularly the charismatic Mayor of Benidorm Pedro Zaragoza Orts who brought in the Plan General de Ordenación (the development plan for the town proposed in 1954). A good concise article is his obituary in The Independentwhen he died in 2008 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/pedro-zaragoza-developer-of-highrise-benidorm-804022.html
Here is another story on Zaragoza from the BBC Madrid correspondent in 2002: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/2031726.stm
Another good summary of the role of Zaragoza is presented here: http://www.thisisvalencia.com/benidorm-predrot.html
Andrew Petcher (mentioned above) has some articles in Spanish too. Here is his article on Pedro Zaragoza.
3.BENIDORM IN THE 1960s and 1970s
The 9-minute opening sequence to the 1965 film Un Beso en el Puerto, with the popular singer Manolo Escobar, shows Benidorm as a fashionable resort. Note how people are dressed. This sequence also shows the Poniente beach with half-built tower blocks rising up, beginning to change the sky line.
An excellent study of the urban planning of Benidorm (contrasting the high rise model with the urban sprawl of Torrevieja) is provided by Mª Nieves Higueras López in a postgraduate study at the University of Alicante in 2012: http://www.enclaveproyectos.es/descargas/Benidorm_estudio_de_su_modelo_urbanistico.pdf
4. THE EVER-CHANGING IMAGE OF BENIDORM
Another link to an article by Andrew Petcher: this one “Benidorm – the Surprise” is about the perceptions of Benidorm in the 1970s.
The infamous Sun article of 2012 claimed that Benidorm was in terminal decline. A number of inaccuracies and deliberate distortions can be found in the article, particularly the captions on photographs. Links
Was Benidorm a fishing port? Is its beach sand natural or imported? Is the town full of fish & chip shops? Benidorm: Exploding the Myths by Derek Workman.
The image of Benidorm presented by the Benidorm Tourist authorities in 2009 when they visited the annual ABTA convention in Barcelona. This video was distributed to delegates at the convention.
In contrast to the Benidorm tourism promoters, the image of the town presented in the comedy television series “Benidorm” is geared to the English perception of the type of people who holiday in the resort. A Wikipedia article on “Benidorm” explains the TV programme if you have not seen it, or look at this clip from Series 1
5. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Schoolweb GeoActive Online resource (up to date, Spring 2013) presenting a complete picture of the growth of Benidorm following the Butler model. Four pages, with student activities Mass Tourism – Trends and Issues in Spain.
6. BENIDORM CONSTRUCTION & INFRASTRUCTURE
The problems of the 1990s in Benidorm included water shortages (Benidorm has 30,000 pools, each tourist uses 880 litres of water a day). The following link contains information about water use and management in Benidorm, as this became a problem, with water shortages being a severe obstacle to development.
Benidorm from the sky. Video celebrating the high rise buildings of Benidorm
7. BLACKPOOL: THE END OF THE PIER
Since the growth of Benidorm during the 1960s coincided with the decline of Blackpool, and involved the same customer base, the first links here are to studies of Blackpool’s decline. There is an exact relationship between the decline of Blackpool on the Butler model and the rise of Benidorm.
Link to video about Blackpool, the resort for the industrial working class in the north of England, before the popularity of package tours to the Mediterranean: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wiG4uDr998c
Before cheap flights and package holidays, Blackpool was a popular resort destination for the industrial working class of northern England. The period of its decline on the Butler model coincides exactly with the period of Benidorm’s development.
8. Specific A2 level Geography notes.
The development of international tourism, pages 419-430. Topic summary of this part of the unit:
● Over the past 50 years tourism has developed into a major
global industry, which is still expanding rapidly.
● A range of factors has been responsible for the growth of
global tourism. These can be subdivided into economic, social and political.
● By far the greatest developments have occurred since the end of the Second World War, arising from the substantial growth in leisure time, affluence and mobility enjoyed in developed countries.
● Many developing countries have become more open to foreign direct investment in tourism compared to two or three decades ago.
● Unfortunately, more than many other industries, tourism is
vulnerable to ‘external shocks’. Periods of economic recession
characterised by high unemployment, modest wage rises, and high interest rates, affect the demand for tourism in most parts of the world.
● Many communities in the developing world have suffered considerable adverse cultural changes, some of them through the imposition of the worst of western values.
● The attitudes to tourism of host countries and destination communities in particular can change over time.
● Communities that were once very close socially and economically may be weakened considerably due to a major outside influence such as tourism.
● Tourism undoubtedly brings valuable foreign currency to developing countries and a range of other obvious benefits but critics argue that its value is often overrated because of economic leakages.
● Butler’s model of the evolution of tourist areas attempts to illustrate how tourism develops and changes over time.
● Tourism benefits other sectors of the economy, providing jobs and income through the supply chain. This is called the multiplier effect because jobs and money multiply as a result of tourism development.
● Tourism that does not destroy what it sets out to explore has come to be known as ‘sustainable’.
● Education about the environment visited is clearly the key.
● The environmental impact of tourism is not always negative.
Landscaping and sensitive improvements to the built
environment have significantly improved the overall quality
of some areas.
● In the past 20 years more specialised types of tourism have become increasingly popular. An important factor seems to be a general re-assessment of the work–life balance.
● Virtually every aspect of the industry now recognises that tourism must become more sustainable. Ecotourism is at the leading edge of sustainable tourism.
8. Benidorm case study applied to A2 Advanced Human Geography exam:
Unit 3.3 of Global Interdependence requires in-depth tourism case studies of MEDC and LEDC destinations, and also specialist or ‘niche’ tourism (e.g. eco-tourism, religious or cultural tourism, etc.) There is some value in presenting Benidorm as a mass-tourism case study for A2 exam longer responses. Here is a plan and model answer using the Benidorm case study for the Winter 2013 Paper 3 question 6b:
Assess the impacts of tourism on the environment, society and economy of one tourist area or resort you have studied. [15 mark question]
Model answer plan Benidorm model answer plan
Model answer Benidorm model answer
Model answer annotated in colour to show how the command word “assess” requires assessment to be built into the answer in relation to the other specific key words “environment, society and economy”. Benidorm model answer annotated
Economics of Tourism:
A useful report to consider when preparing A-level case study material on Benidorm. The role of tourism in a country’s or a region’s economic development is a very popular topic for discussion. You may be asked to assess tourism as a sound base for economic development.
Harvard University Economics of Tourism Report.